Assam is gifted with varieties of flora and fauna including world famous the Great Indian One Horned Rhino, Pigmy Hog, Royal Bengal Tiger, Elephant, Swamp Deer, Gangetic Dolphin, Wild Buffalo, Golden Langur, Hoolock Gibbon, Stump-tailed Macaque and Pig-tailed Macaque, Hispid Hare etc. The birds found in Assam includes Greater Adjutant Stork, White winged wood duck, Bengal Florican, Spotbilled Pelican, Lesser Adjutant Stork, King Vulture, Great Hornbills, Long-billed and Spotted Wren-babblers, Large and Coral-billed Scimitar Babblers, Laughingthrush etc.
Much of the state is covered with dense tropical forests of bamboo and, at higher elevations, evergreens. Many valuable trees like Sal, Agar, Segun, Bon Chom etc., found in these forests which help in economic development of the state.
In the semi-evergreen forests, the moist and humid conditions make it suitable for the growth of epiphytes and lianas. Two specific species of Orchids - Rhynchostylis retusa, known locally as Kapou phool and Ornithocalyx teres grow here. Assam's most celebrated flower, the Kopou Phool, is known to the orchid enthusiast of the West as the Foxtail Orchid. This orchid grows widely across Assam and is worn by young women on their hair during the spring festival of Assam, Rongali Bihu and is symbolic of youth and renewal. The tea plants in Assam are species of Camellia - Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica. A lot of Water hyacinth including Eichornia crassipes, Monochoria haestefolia are seen in the forests of Assam. Water lilies Nymphaea pubescens and Lotuses Nelumbo nucifera are also seen. The Assamese use a lot of bamboo in their day-to-day life. There are several species of bamboo, each having different purposes for use. Wild flowers grow all over the countryside in Assam. Ipomea reptans, a large mauve-coloured flower growing in swampy ground, Leucas aspera, Cassia alata and the silvery-pink Argyreia hookeri are among the attractive wild flowers.